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CBD Studies Database - Covid-19

There are many hypotheses on how CBD and cannabis can quell the cytokine storm that occurs with COVID-19 virus. These findings are still in early development and results of in vitro studies are greatly anticipated. The main focus being cannabidiol and its characteristic anti-inflammatory properties, another novel use of cannabinoids and their therapeutic properties. 

Acute inflammation and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Cannabidiol as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment?
Cannabinoids are known to suppress immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting the potential that cannabidiol (CBD) can temper excessive inflammation. This article explores CBD as a therapeutic approach against SARS-COV2 induced inflammation, as the disease can inflict significant damage through pro-inflammatory cytokine storms mediated by macrophages and other immune cells. CBD is recognized by researchers for it's safety, efficacy, and use in modern clinical medicine. Although, a deeper understanding of the specific effects of SARS-COV2 on human macrophages, T cell physiology,and immunological functions is needed.
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Cannabis for COVID-19: can cannabinoids quell the cytokine storm?
This article discusses the pharmacological immune modulatory effects of cannabinoids, or cannabis use by those who have contacted COVID 19, those who have not contracted the disease, and the outcomes. Several studies have shown that cannabinoids can have anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties through the activation of cannabinoid receptors. Phytocannabinoids such as ∆9 THC and cannabidiol have been demonstrated to reduce inflammatory cytokine storms. It is hypothesized that cannabinoid receptors could be therapeutic targets of COVID-19 and have become of great interest to determine whether cannabinoids can quell the cytokine release by SARS COV-2 and reduce mortality caused by COVID -19.
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Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2: A Possible Target in SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-19) Infection?
Is it possible that the selective stimulation of CB2 could reduce inflammatory response in SARS-COV2 patients, and improve the outcome? Stimulating the CB2 receptor has a well demonstrated immunosuppressive effect by reducing immune cells proliferation and production of antibodies. This can be greatly beneficial in continuing the exacerbated inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. More studies are necessary to develop a commercially available CB2 agonist. These clinical studies with available phytocannabinoids will be beneficial to combatting syndromes and viruses that attack the respiratory system and the immunocompromised.
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The potential of cannabidiol in the COVID-19 pandemic
This article suggests that the systematic administration of cannabidiol could have the potential to limit COVID-19 disease progression, and post infectious sequelae. Cannabidiol exerts a wide range of immodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and can mitigate the controlled cytokine production responsible for acute lung injury. Encouraging preclinical studies and it's relative safety profile in humans, have researchers considering cannabidiol as a useful addition to the treatment of COVID-19.
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β-Caryophyllene, A Natural Dietary CB2 Receptor Selective Cannabinoid can be a Candidate to Target the Trinity of Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation in COVID-19. 
One of the more promising therapeutic targets for the modulation of immune-inflammatory responses is the endocannabinoid system. Particularly the activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2R), a g-protein coupled receptor which mediates the anti-inflammatory properties by modulating numerous signaling pathways. Recently, researchers have discovered a naturally occurring cannabinoid ligand, β caryophyllene and it is hypothesized that these cannabinoids may be a novel candidate for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical development. The numerous studies proposing the potential of cannabinoids and the therapeutic properties it can have against COVID-19 are encouraging. Read the article here.

Cannabidiol (CBD) modulation of apelin in acute respiratory distress syndrome
This is a follow-up study for recent findings indicating cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study they were able to mimic the symptoms of ARDS in a murine model. A significant decrease in the expression of apelin in both lung and blood tissues was found. Most importantly, CBD treatment increased the apelin expression significantly, suggesting the potential interface between the apelingeric system and CBD may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as COVID 19. Because apelin can also be a substitute for ACE2, these findings will be particularly relevant in the management of COVID-19 symptoms. Future clinical studies will be needed to explore the range of therapeutic possibilities. Read the full study here

Cannabis compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in COVID-19-related inflammation in lung epithelial cells and pro-inflammatory activity in macrophages
This study examines the anti-inflammatory activity of cannabis on immune response markers associated with COVID-19 inflammation. Cannabinoids are suggested to be immune modulators and can change the balance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article identifies cannabis compounds that exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in lung epithelial cells, as they pertain to  a COVID-19 cytokine storm release. Trials with phytocannabinoids containing terpenes have much clinical value and more of these studies are needed to explore their potential.
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Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNA
This article discusses that the administration of CBD can down-regulate the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ameliorate the clinical symptoms of ARDS. Among all cannabinoids, CBD has demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of pathological conditions. Results showed a potential protective role for CBD as part of the treatment for COVID-19, by reducing the cytokine storm, protecting pulmonary tissues, and re-establishing inflammatory homeostasis. It is plausible that CBD may be used as a therapeutic candidate in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions including COVID-19.
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In search of preventive strategies: novel high-CBD Cannabis sativa extracts modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 gateway tissues
There is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help reduce mortality and the spread of COVID-19. Researchers hypothesize that high CBD extracts of cannabis may be used to down regulate the ACE2 expression, in targeting COVID 19 tissues. Scientists identified thirteen different high CBD extracts that decreased the ACE2 protein levels using artificial human models in this study. The most effective extracts will require further validation through large scale analysis.
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Cannabidiol Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Promotes the Host Innate Immune Response
This study highlights CBD, and its active metabolite, 7-OH-CBD, as a potential preventative agent and therapeutic treatment for SARS-CoV-2 at early stages of infection. CBD has the potential not only to act as an antiviral agent at early stages of infection but also to protect the host against an overactive immune system at later stages. Carefully designed placebo-controlled clinical trials with known concentrations and highly-characterized formulations are necessary in order to define CBD’s role in preventing and treating early SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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